Actual order with your choice
Global ranking of risk factors by total number of deaths, 2019
chart
High systolic blood pressure
10.8
Million
chart
Smoking
7.7
Millions
chart
Air pollution
6.7
Millions
chart
High fasting plasma glucose
6.6
Millions
chart
High body mass index
5.0
Millions

Source: State of global air, 202017

Table 2: WHO recommended air quality guidelines
Pollutant Averaging Time 2005 AQGs 2021 AQGs
PM2.5 Annual 10 5
24-hour 25 15
PM10 Annual 20 15
24-hour 50 45
Ozone (O3) Peak Season - 60
8-hour 100 100
Nitrogen oxide Annual 40 10
24-hour - 25
Sulphur dioxide 24-hour 20 40
Carbon Monoxide 24-hour - 4

Source: IQAir (2021), The 2021 World Air Quality Report.30

* New averaging time for 2021 | + Peak season - average of daily maximum 8-hour mean ozone concentration during the six consecutive months with the highest six-month running-average of ozone concentration NO2 1-hour average, SO2 10 minute average, and CO2 8-hour, 1-hour, and 15-minute averages unchanged from previous recommendations. Source: World Health Organization

Chart11: Investments in energy infrastructure,
renewables vs conventional, % share, Asia
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Renewables
Conventional Power
Source: IJGlobal

Asia in Focus:

Clean Air and
the business
and human
rights agenda

Asia in Focus:

Clean Air and
the business
and human
rights agenda

factory icon Understanding air pollution

Air pollution contributes to around seven million deaths annually24 and costs the global economy upwards of US$2.9trn per annum.25 Air pollution in the Asia-Pacific region is not only a major health risk but also has damaging impacts on the environment and agricultural crop yields. According to a 2019 report published by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in association with Asia Pacific Clean Air Partnership and Climate & Clean Air Coalition, 92% of the population in the Asia and Pacific region is exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution.26

2.5 microns

PM2.5—particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns—is a common proxy for air pollution as it poses the greatest health risk.

The WHO defines air pollution as “the contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere”. Pollutants that are a major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide.27 Of these pollutants, PM2.5—particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns—is a common proxy for air pollution as it poses the greatest health risk. Given its minute size, it can penetrate the lungs and enter the bloodstream.28 Exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5 leads to increased mortality or morbidity and increases the risk of developing lung cancer or cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

Air pollution guidelines

The WHO has been issuing guidelines relating to air pollution levels since 1987. The organisation released its most recent set of more stringent air quality guidelines in September 2021.

WHO recommended air quality guidelines (AQG)29

Compare 2005 and 2021 data by clicking on the circle

Pollutant
PM2.5
Annual
10
24-hour
25
Pollutant
PM2.5
Annual
5
24-hour
15
Pollutant
PM10
Annual
20
24-hour
50
Pollutant
PM10
Annual
15
24-hour
45
Pollutant
Ozone (O3)
Peak Season
-
8-hour
100
Pollutant
Ozone (O3)
Peak Season
60
8-hour
100
Pollutant
Nitrogen oxide
Annual
40
24-hour
-
Pollutant
Nitrogen oxide
Annual
10
24-hour
25
Pollutant
Sulphur dioxide
24-hour
20
Pollutant
Sulphur dioxide
24-hour
40
Pollutant
Carbon Monoxide
24-hour
-
Pollutant
Carbon Monoxide
24-hour
4
2005 AQGs
2021 AQGs

Source: IQAir (2021), The 2021 World Air Quality Report.30

* New averaging time for 2021 | + Peak season - average of daily maximum 8-hour mean ozone concentration during the six consecutive months with the highest six-month running-average of ozone concentration NO2 1-hour average, SO2 10 minute average, and CO2 8-hour, 1-hour, and 15-minute averages unchanged from previous recommendations. Source: World Health Organization

Table 2: WHO recommended air quality guidelines (AQG)29
Pollutant Averaging Time 2005 AQGs 2021 AQGs
PM2.5 Annual 10 5
24-hour 25 15
PM10 Annual 20 15
24-hour 50 45
Ozone (O3) Peak Season - 60
8-hour 100 100
Nitrogen oxide Annual 40 10
24-hour - 25
Sulphur dioxide 24-hour 20 40
Carbon Monoxide 24-hour - 4

Source: IQAir (2021), The 2021 World Air Quality Report.30

* New averaging time for 2021 | + Peak season - average of daily maximum 8-hour mean ozone concentration during the six consecutive months with the highest six-month running-average of ozone concentration NO2 1-hour average, SO2 10 minute average, and CO2 8-hour, 1-hour, and 15-minute averages unchanged from previous recommendations. Source: World Health Organization

Sources of air pollution in Asia

Broadly, air pollution can be categorised into outdoor (or ambient air pollution) and indoor air pollution. Pollutants originate from a number of natural and man-made activities. Natural events include volcanoes, forest fires and dust storms. Man-made causes include the burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation, transportation fuels and industrial operations. Globally, only 18% of total urban ambient air pollution resulting from PM2.5 originates from natural sources, while 82% is attributable to man-made sources.31

Fossil fuel burning image

Fossil fuel burning: Rapid urbanisation over recent decades has led to an increase in energy demand—for electricity generation and transport fuels—the majority of which has been met from coal and crude oil derivatives. Burning fossil fuels releases noxious gases such as nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Agricultural burning image

Agricultural burning: Slash and burn agriculture, prevalent in Asia, is a significant contributor to air pollution in the region. Many countries still rely on burning as a cheap means to clear fields post-harvest—a major contributor to seasonal smog in Northern India and South-East Asia.

Waste burning  image

Waste burning: Improper waste disposal is another leading cause of air pollution. In developing countries, incineration is a common waste disposal method. Open burning can lead to emissions of particulate matter and poisonous gases.

Industrial operations image

Industrial operations: Manufacturing operations consume vast amounts of electricity, much of which is produced by burning coal. However, the manufacturing process itself can also be a major source of pollution as it releases volatile organic compounds that remain suspended in the air and can cause respiratory illnesses.

The charts below provide a breakdown of ambient air pollution sources in South and South-East Asia.

Source: PK Hopke et al. (2020), Science of The Total Environment, Global review of recent source apportionments for airborne particulate matter.32

* Sea salt represents particles in the air typically resulting from winds blowing off of nearby oceans, but can also originate from anthropogenic sources

Source: PK Hopke et al. (2020), Science of The Total Environment, Global review of recent source apportionments for airborne particulate matter.33

 

transparent

References

X

1 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

2 https://e360.yale.edu/digest/air-pollution-from-fossil-fuels-costs-8-billion-per-day-new-research-finds

3 For the full list of UNGPs, see > https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

4 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-third-most-polluted-country-delhi-most-polluted-capital-report/articleshow/81537532

5 Greenpeace Southeast Asia and Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air

6 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923778/#B3

7 https://www.newyorker.com/news/dispatch/the-coronavirus-offers-a-radical-new-vision-for-indias-cities-pollution

8 https://twitter.com/hp_tourism/status/1246017228274728960

9 https://www.ndtv.com/cities/jalandhar-sees-dhauladhar-range-for-first-time-in-decades-amid-lockdown-2205943

10 https://www.who.int/news/item/04-04-2022-billions-of-people-still-breathe-unhealthy-air-new-who-data

11 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

12 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-third-most-polluted-country-delhi-most-polluted-capital-report/articleshow/81537532
world-air-quality-report-2020-en-pdf
(2020 Report-English - page 4, section on Executive summary) More recent data is available from the same source but was released after the report went into production.

13 US AQI >100 https://www.airnow.gov/aqi/aqi-basics/#:~:text=Think%20of%20the%20AQI%20as,300%20represents%20hazardous%20air%20quality
world-air-quality-report-2020-en-pdf
(2020 Report-English - page 4, section on Executive summary) More recent data is available from the same source but was released after the report went into production.

14 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-third-most-polluted-country-delhi-most-polluted-capital-report/articleshow/81537532<
world-air-quality-report-2020-en-pdf
(2020 Report-English - page 4, section on Executive summary) More recent data is available from the same source but was released after the report went into production.

15 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/pollution-facts/

16 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33735795/

17 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/

18 https://www.iarc.who.int/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/pr221_E.pdf

19 https://www.economist.com/asia/2021/11/06/indias-toxic-air-is-its-most-immediate-environmental-problem

20 https://ourworldindata.org/air-pollution#air-pollution-is-one-of-the-world-s-leading-risk-factors-for-death

21 https://ourworldindata.org/air-pollution#air-pollution-is-one-of-the-world-s-leading-risk-factors-for-death

22 https://ourworldindata.org/outdoor-air-pollution

23 https://www.who.int/news/item/22-09-2021-new-who-global-air-quality-guidelines-aim-to-save-millions-of-lives-from-air-pollution

24 https://www.who.int/news/item/22-09-2021-new-who-global-air-quality-guidelines-aim-to-save-millions-of-lives-from-air-pollution#:~:text=At%20the%20same%20time%2C%20 however,more%20healthy%20years%20of%20life

25 https://energyandcleanair.org/publications/costs-of-air-pollution-from-fossil-fuels/

26 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

27 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health

28 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health

29 "Air quality guidelines (AQGs) released by the WHO provide recommendations on air quality levels as well as interim targets for six key air pollutants. These are based on the extensive scientific evidence currently available; the guidelines identify the levels of air quality necessary to protect public health worldwide. The AQGs also serve as a reference for assessing if, and by how much, the exposure of a population exceeds levels at which it might cause health concerns. They cover some of the most monitored pollutants critical for health, for which evidence on health effects from exposure has advanced the most in the past 15 years.” https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/who-global-air-quality-guidelines

30 https://www.iqair.com/blog/air-quality/2021a-WHO-air-quality-guidelines

31 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015303320#appsec1

32 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720336111

33 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720336111

34 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923778/

35 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923778/#B3

36 https://undocs.org/A/HRC/RES/48/13

37 United Nations, General Assembly, The human right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment, A/76/L.75 (26 July 2022)

38 https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G20/202/42/PDF/G2020242.pdf?OpenElement

39 Interview insight - Dr Surya Deva

40 https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/64/292

41 https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/10/1103082

42 https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26116&LangID=E#_ftnref2

43 https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/07/10th-anniversary-recognition-water-and-sanitation-human-right-general-assembly?LangID=E&NewsID=26116

44 https://ideas4development.org/en/right-water-fundamental-human-right/

45 https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/07/10th-anniversary-recognition-water-and-sanitation-human-right-general-assembly?LangID=E&NewsID=26116#_ftn1

46 https://shiftproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/How-to-use-the-UN-Guiding-Principles-on-Business-and-Human-Rights-in-company-research-and-advocacy.pdf

47 https://www.ohchr.org/documents/issues/business/a-hrc-17-31_aev.pdf

48 https://www.ohchr.org/documents/issues/business/a-hrc-17-31_aev.pdf

49 https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/659631/climate-litigation-asia-pacific.pdf

50 https://www.globalhealthrights.org/henares-and-ors-v-land-transportation-franchising-and-regulatory-board-and-ors/

51 https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/685751588227715919/pdf/Dirty-Stacks-High-Stakes-An-Overview-of-Brick-Sector-in-South-Asia.pdf

52 https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/685751588227715919/pdf/Dirty-Stacks-High-Stakes-An-Overview-of-Brick-Sector-in-South-Asia.pdf

53 https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/894/1/Millennium_rvw_final_october.pdf

54 https://tcc-gsr.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/1.3-Asia-Regional-Overview.pdf

55 Calculations by Economist Impact, based on data from https://data.adb.org/dataset/asian-transport-outlook-database (See Asia Transport Outlook Database – Excel file name > ‘National air pollution and health’, Sheet name> ‘APH-VAP-031’

56 https://www.channelnewsasia.com/world/explainer-power-impact-climate-change-1339031

57 https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/08/22/asian-governments-are-the-biggest-backers-of-the-filthiest-fuel

58 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/data/#/air/plot

59 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/data/#/air/plot

60 https://e360.yale.edu/digest/air-pollution-from-fossil-fuels-costs-8-billion-per-day-new-research-finds

61 https://blogs.adb.org/blog/crystal-clear-asia-s-cities-are-finding-innovative-ways-clean-their-skies

62 Figures are estimates from modelling exercises. Scientific studies that use computer models do not give results with absolute certainty. Instead a range is provided (known as an 'interval'). The ‘confidence range’ is the range that is most likely to contain the true value. A 95% confidence interval means that with 95% probability, reality is somewhere inside the confidence interval, and a 5% chance it is outside the interval (either higher or lower than the range of numbers in the range). The value with the highest probability to be the true value is called the central estimate. It is somewhere inside the confidence interval. The bounds of the confidence interval are called the low and the high estimate.

63 https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/29e450ab-data-driven-media-briefing-110220.pdf

64 These figures are central estimates. See footnote 60 for a definition of central estimates.

65 https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/21b480fa-toxic-air-report-110220.pdf

66 https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/The%20Economics%20of%20Climate%20Change%20%20in%20the%20Asia-Pacific%20region.pdf (Section on Highlights, page v)

67 https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-made-to-matter/psychological-economic-and-social-costs-air-pollution

68 https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-made-to-matter/psychological-economic-and-social-costs-air-pollution

69 https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/air-pollution-and-child-health#:~:text=Globally%2C%2093%25%20of%20all%20children,indirectly%20related%20to%20environmental%20risks

70 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/why-legislation-needed-curb-air-pollution

71 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/five-reasons-you-should-care-about-air-pollution

72 https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-6025-1

73 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/health/global#Millions-deaths

74 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/the-index/

75 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/the-index/

76 https://dalberg.com/our-ideas/more-than-a-public-health-crisis-air-pollutions-impact-on-the-indian-economy/

77 https://dalberg.com/our-ideas/more-than-a-public-health-crisis-air-pollutions-impact-on-the-indian-economy/

78 https://insights.som.yale.edu/insights/skilled-workers-flee-from-polluted-cities-hampering-economic-growth

79 Ground level ozone is a pollutant formed as a result of chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. These chemicals are emitted from industrial plants, electric utilities, vehicle exhaust etc.

80 https://www.asianscientist.com/2022/01/in-the-lab/ozone-emission-exposure-pollution-crop-loss/#:~:text=Ozone%20pollution%20has%20been%20linked,maize%20 yield%20in%20East%20Asia

81 https://www.sei.org/featured/5-ways-reducing-pollution-can-improve-equality-for-women/

82 https://www.ft.com/content/ee08d61d-4c98-4398-9971-93036d67e91e

83 https://impact.economist.com/perspectives/sites/default/files/resettingtheagenda.pdf

84 https://theprint.in/environment/how-air-pollution-has-become-a-big-factor-in-indians-decision-to-work-in-delhi/316489/

85 https://theprint.in/environment/how-air-pollution-has-become-a-big-factor-in-indians-decision-to-work-in-delhi/316489/

86 https://insights.som.yale.edu/insights/skilled-workers-flee-from-polluted-cities-hampering-economic-growth

87 https://www.un.org/en/observances/biological-diversity-day

88 http://www.equilibriumconsultants.com/upload/document/airpollutionandbiodi4f9.pdf

89 https://www.ilo.org/asia/media-centre/news/WCMS_627585/lang--en/index.htm

90 https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Health-Vulnerabilities-of-Informal-Workers.pdf

91 https://www.who.int/teams/environment-climate-change-and-health/air-quality-and-health/health-impacts

92 https://academic.oup.com/cardiovascres/article/116/14/2247/5940460

93 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305992

94 https://asiapacific.unfpa.org/en/news/rights-indigenous-peoples-must-be-protected-and-respected

95 https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/indigenouspeoples#1

96 https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/indigenouspeoples#1

97 https://airqualitynews.com/2022/03/22/97-of-global-cities-do-not-meet-latest-who-air-quality-guidelines/#:~:text=97%25%20of%20global%20cities%20and,The%20report%20analysed%20PM2

98 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/five-reasons-you-should-care-about-air-pollution

99 https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/pm25-exposure-gdp

100 Interview insight from Prarthana Borah

101 https://www.cleanairfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/The-State-of-Global-Air-Quality-Funding-2021-report-compressed-2.pdf

102 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

103 https://cil.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/2013-Updated-APMS-1.pdf

104 https://www.eria.org/ERIA-DP-2015-82.pdf

105 https://www.greenpeace.org/southeastasia/press/3239/a-haze-free-asean-by-2020-are-we-there-yet/

106 https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Indonesia-sootfree-CBA-02182020.pdf

107 https://www.science.org/content/article/indonesias-fires-are-bad-new-measures-prevented-them-becoming-worse

108 https://www.climate-laws.org/geographies/indonesia/policies/presidential-regulation-5-2006-concerning-national-energy-policy

109 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

110 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/air-pollution-choking-bangkok-solution-reach

111 https://cdn.sei.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/210212c-killeen-archer-air-quality-in-thailand-wp-2101e-final.pdf

112 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

113 https://www.mdpi.com/2032-6653/12/1/2/pdf

114 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

114 https://www.who.int/vietnam/news/detail/12-12-2019-who-commends-can-tho-s-commitment-to-tackle-air-pollution#:~:text=HANOI%2C%2012%20December%202019%20%E2%80%93%20The,to%20safe%20levels%20by%202030

116 https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/India%20BS%20VI%20Policy%20Update%20vF.pdf

117 https://www.pmuy.gov.in/about

118 https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-grap-delhi-ncrs-action-plan-as-air-pollution-increases-6719746/

119 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590162120300368

120 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

121 https://www.npr.org/2019/07/30/727688757/mongolias-capital-banned-coal-to-fix-its-pollution-problem-will-it-work

122 https://www.kasa.gov.my/roadmap/Roadmap_KASA_2020-2030-en.pdf

123 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/20247/SouthEastAsia_report.pdf?amp%3BisAllowed=&sequence=1

124 https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1159659

125 https://changing-transport.org/modernizing-public-transport-in-the-philippines/

126 https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2016/01/28/govt-supports-road-sharing/

127 https://rise.esmap.org/data/files/library/sri-lanka/Renewable%20Energy/RE%206.1%20Clean%20Air%202025%20Action%20plan.pdf

128 https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-10-300

129 http://plancomm.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/plancomm.portal.gov.bd/files/68e32f08_13b8_4192_ab9b_abd5a0a62a33/2021-02-03-17-04-ec95e78e452a813808a483b3b22e14a1.pdf

130 http://plancomm.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/plancomm.portal.gov.bd/files/68e32f08_13b8_4192_ab9b_abd5a0a62a33/2021-02-03-17-04-ec95e78e452a813808a483b3b22e14a1.pdf

131 http://english.cbcsd.org.cn/SDtrends/20130922/73436.shtml#:~:text=on%20September%2010th-,The%20Airborne%20Pollution%20Prevention%20and%20Control%20Action%20Plan%20(2013%2D17,at%20the%20Environmental%20Protection%20Ministry

132 http://english.cbcsd.org.cn/SDtrends/20130922/73436.shtml#:~:text=on%20September%2010th-,The%20Airborne%20Pollution%20Prevention%20and%20Control%20Action%20Plan%20

133 https://www.loc.gov/item/global-legal-monitor/2018-08-16/china-2020-air-pollution-action-plan-released/

133 https://energyandcleanair.org/china-14th-five-year-plan-carbon-neutrality/

135 http://english.www.gov.cn/news/topnews/202109/09/content_WS6139a111c6d0df57f98dfeec.html

136 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/country-spotlight/china/

137 https://www.ijglobal.com/

138 https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2021-wall-street-banks-ranked-green-projects-fossil-fuels/#xj4y7vzkg

139 https://www.aiib.org/en/news-events/asian-infrastructure-finance/2020/_common/pdf/AIIB_AIF2020_16April2020.pdf

140 https://epic.uchicago.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ETS_INDIA_ResearchSummaryFinal-.pdf

141 https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/this-pilot-trading-scheme-in-surat-could-help-firms-reduce-air

142 https://epic.uchicago.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ETS_INDIA_ResearchSummaryFinal-.pdf

143 https://epic.uchicago.edu/news/worlds-first-emissions-trading-scheme-for-particulate-pollution-starts-in-surat/

144 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09644016.2017.1338213?journalCode=fenp20

145 https://smartcities.gov.in/climatesmart_cities

146 https://www.niua.org/csc/assets/pdf/key-documents/phase-2/CSCAF-2.0-Brochure_24042020.pdf

147 For the full list of UNGPs, see > https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

148 https://oxfordre.com/environmentalscience/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.001.0001/acrefore-9780199389414-e-718

149 https://www.thai-german-cooperation.info/en_US/vehicle-pollution-fund-in-the-philippines-tackling-the-final-steps-towards-utilisation/

150 Garton, Kelly, Thow, Anne Marie & Swinburn, Boyd. (2020). International Trade and Investment Agreements as Barriers to Food Environment Regulation for Public Health Nutrition: A Realist Review. Journal of Health Policy and Management.

151 For the full list of UNGPs, see > https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

152 https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/Considerations%20regarding%20vulnerable.pdf

153 https://www.sei.org/featured/5-ways-reducing-pollution-can-improve-equality-for-women/

154 https://medium.com/pakistan-air-quality-initiative/introducing-the-pakistan-air-quality-initiative-%D9%BE%D8%A7%DA%A9%DB%8C-d1f2f9ed7d11

155 Not exhaustive

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