Asia in Focus: Clean Air and the Business and Human Rights Agenda

The following video is part of the webcast series, ‘Asia in Focus’, developed by UNDP in partnership with the European Union. Alongside experts, advocates and practitioners, Asia in Focus explores the interconnections between business, human rights, and environment. In this episode, experts deep dive into the human rights impacts of air pollution, while exploring the controversies and tradeoffs of air pollution mitigation efforts.

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References

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1 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

2 https://e360.yale.edu/digest/air-pollution-from-fossil-fuels-costs-8-billion-per-day-new-research-finds

3 For the full list of UNGPs, see > https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

4 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-third-most-polluted-country-delhi-most-polluted-capital-report/articleshow/81537532

5 Greenpeace Southeast Asia and Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air

6 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923778/#B3

7 https://www.newyorker.com/news/dispatch/the-coronavirus-offers-a-radical-new-vision-for-indias-cities-pollution

8 https://twitter.com/hp_tourism/status/1246017228274728960

9 https://www.ndtv.com/cities/jalandhar-sees-dhauladhar-range-for-first-time-in-decades-amid-lockdown-2205943

10 https://www.who.int/news/item/04-04-2022-billions-of-people-still-breathe-unhealthy-air-new-who-data

11 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

12 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-third-most-polluted-country-delhi-most-polluted-capital-report/articleshow/81537532
world-air-quality-report-2020-en-pdf
(2020 Report-English - page 4, section on Executive summary) More recent data is available from the same source but was released after the report went into production.

13 US AQI >100 https://www.airnow.gov/aqi/aqi-basics/#:~:text=Think%20of%20the%20AQI%20as,300%20represents%20hazardous%20air%20quality
world-air-quality-report-2020-en-pdf
(2020 Report-English - page 4, section on Executive summary) More recent data is available from the same source but was released after the report went into production.

14 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-third-most-polluted-country-delhi-most-polluted-capital-report/articleshow/81537532<
world-air-quality-report-2020-en-pdf
(2020 Report-English - page 4, section on Executive summary) More recent data is available from the same source but was released after the report went into production.

15 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/pollution-facts/

16 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33735795/

17 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/

18 https://www.iarc.who.int/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/pr221_E.pdf

19 https://www.economist.com/asia/2021/11/06/indias-toxic-air-is-its-most-immediate-environmental-problem

20 https://ourworldindata.org/air-pollution#air-pollution-is-one-of-the-world-s-leading-risk-factors-for-death

21 https://ourworldindata.org/air-pollution#air-pollution-is-one-of-the-world-s-leading-risk-factors-for-death

22 https://ourworldindata.org/outdoor-air-pollution

23 https://www.who.int/news/item/22-09-2021-new-who-global-air-quality-guidelines-aim-to-save-millions-of-lives-from-air-pollution

24 https://www.who.int/news/item/22-09-2021-new-who-global-air-quality-guidelines-aim-to-save-millions-of-lives-from-air-pollution#:~:text=At%20the%20same%20time%2C%20 however,more%20healthy%20years%20of%20life

25 https://energyandcleanair.org/publications/costs-of-air-pollution-from-fossil-fuels/

26 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

27 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health

28 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health

29 "Air quality guidelines (AQGs) released by the WHO provide recommendations on air quality levels as well as interim targets for six key air pollutants. These are based on the extensive scientific evidence currently available; the guidelines identify the levels of air quality necessary to protect public health worldwide. The AQGs also serve as a reference for assessing if, and by how much, the exposure of a population exceeds levels at which it might cause health concerns. They cover some of the most monitored pollutants critical for health, for which evidence on health effects from exposure has advanced the most in the past 15 years.” https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/who-global-air-quality-guidelines

30 https://www.iqair.com/blog/air-quality/2021a-WHO-air-quality-guidelines

31 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015303320#appsec1

32 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720336111

33 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720336111

34 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923778/

35 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923778/#B3

36 https://undocs.org/A/HRC/RES/48/13

37 United Nations, General Assembly, The human right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment, A/76/L.75 (26 July 2022)

38 https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G20/202/42/PDF/G2020242.pdf?OpenElement

39 Interview insight - Dr Surya Deva

40 https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/64/292

41 https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/10/1103082

42 https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26116&LangID=E#_ftnref2

43 https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/07/10th-anniversary-recognition-water-and-sanitation-human-right-general-assembly?LangID=E&NewsID=26116

44 https://ideas4development.org/en/right-water-fundamental-human-right/

45 https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/07/10th-anniversary-recognition-water-and-sanitation-human-right-general-assembly?LangID=E&NewsID=26116#_ftn1

46 https://shiftproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/How-to-use-the-UN-Guiding-Principles-on-Business-and-Human-Rights-in-company-research-and-advocacy.pdf

47 https://www.ohchr.org/documents/issues/business/a-hrc-17-31_aev.pdf

48 https://www.ohchr.org/documents/issues/business/a-hrc-17-31_aev.pdf

49 https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/659631/climate-litigation-asia-pacific.pdf

50 https://www.globalhealthrights.org/henares-and-ors-v-land-transportation-franchising-and-regulatory-board-and-ors/

51 https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/685751588227715919/pdf/Dirty-Stacks-High-Stakes-An-Overview-of-Brick-Sector-in-South-Asia.pdf

52 https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/685751588227715919/pdf/Dirty-Stacks-High-Stakes-An-Overview-of-Brick-Sector-in-South-Asia.pdf

53 https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/894/1/Millennium_rvw_final_october.pdf

54 https://tcc-gsr.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/1.3-Asia-Regional-Overview.pdf

55 Calculations by Economist Impact, based on data from https://data.adb.org/dataset/asian-transport-outlook-database (See Asia Transport Outlook Database – Excel file name > ‘National air pollution and health’, Sheet name> ‘APH-VAP-031’

56 https://www.channelnewsasia.com/world/explainer-power-impact-climate-change-1339031

57 https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/08/22/asian-governments-are-the-biggest-backers-of-the-filthiest-fuel

58 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/data/#/air/plot

59 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/data/#/air/plot

60 https://e360.yale.edu/digest/air-pollution-from-fossil-fuels-costs-8-billion-per-day-new-research-finds

61 https://blogs.adb.org/blog/crystal-clear-asia-s-cities-are-finding-innovative-ways-clean-their-skies

62 Figures are estimates from modelling exercises. Scientific studies that use computer models do not give results with absolute certainty. Instead a range is provided (known as an 'interval'). The ‘confidence range’ is the range that is most likely to contain the true value. A 95% confidence interval means that with 95% probability, reality is somewhere inside the confidence interval, and a 5% chance it is outside the interval (either higher or lower than the range of numbers in the range). The value with the highest probability to be the true value is called the central estimate. It is somewhere inside the confidence interval. The bounds of the confidence interval are called the low and the high estimate.

63 https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/29e450ab-data-driven-media-briefing-110220.pdf

64 These figures are central estimates. See footnote 60 for a definition of central estimates.

65 https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/21b480fa-toxic-air-report-110220.pdf

66 https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/The%20Economics%20of%20Climate%20Change%20%20in%20the%20Asia-Pacific%20region.pdf (Section on Highlights, page v)

67 https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-made-to-matter/psychological-economic-and-social-costs-air-pollution

68 https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-made-to-matter/psychological-economic-and-social-costs-air-pollution

69 https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/air-pollution-and-child-health#:~:text=Globally%2C%2093%25%20of%20all%20children,indirectly%20related%20to%20environmental%20risks

70 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/why-legislation-needed-curb-air-pollution

71 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/five-reasons-you-should-care-about-air-pollution

72 https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-6025-1

73 https://www.stateofglobalair.org/health/global#Millions-deaths

74 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/the-index/

75 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/the-index/

76 https://dalberg.com/our-ideas/more-than-a-public-health-crisis-air-pollutions-impact-on-the-indian-economy/

77 https://dalberg.com/our-ideas/more-than-a-public-health-crisis-air-pollutions-impact-on-the-indian-economy/

78 https://insights.som.yale.edu/insights/skilled-workers-flee-from-polluted-cities-hampering-economic-growth

79 Ground level ozone is a pollutant formed as a result of chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. These chemicals are emitted from industrial plants, electric utilities, vehicle exhaust etc.

80 https://www.asianscientist.com/2022/01/in-the-lab/ozone-emission-exposure-pollution-crop-loss/#:~:text=Ozone%20pollution%20has%20been%20linked,maize%20 yield%20in%20East%20Asia

81 https://www.sei.org/featured/5-ways-reducing-pollution-can-improve-equality-for-women/

82 https://www.ft.com/content/ee08d61d-4c98-4398-9971-93036d67e91e

83 https://impact.economist.com/perspectives/sites/default/files/resettingtheagenda.pdf

84 https://theprint.in/environment/how-air-pollution-has-become-a-big-factor-in-indians-decision-to-work-in-delhi/316489/

85 https://theprint.in/environment/how-air-pollution-has-become-a-big-factor-in-indians-decision-to-work-in-delhi/316489/

86 https://insights.som.yale.edu/insights/skilled-workers-flee-from-polluted-cities-hampering-economic-growth

87 https://www.un.org/en/observances/biological-diversity-day

88 http://www.equilibriumconsultants.com/upload/document/airpollutionandbiodi4f9.pdf

89 https://www.ilo.org/asia/media-centre/news/WCMS_627585/lang--en/index.htm

90 https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Health-Vulnerabilities-of-Informal-Workers.pdf

91 https://www.who.int/teams/environment-climate-change-and-health/air-quality-and-health/health-impacts

92 https://academic.oup.com/cardiovascres/article/116/14/2247/5940460

93 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305992

94 https://asiapacific.unfpa.org/en/news/rights-indigenous-peoples-must-be-protected-and-respected

95 https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/indigenouspeoples#1

96 https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/indigenouspeoples#1

97 https://airqualitynews.com/2022/03/22/97-of-global-cities-do-not-meet-latest-who-air-quality-guidelines/#:~:text=97%25%20of%20global%20cities%20and,The%20report%20analysed%20PM2

98 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/five-reasons-you-should-care-about-air-pollution

99 https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/pm25-exposure-gdp

100 Interview insight from Prarthana Borah

101 https://www.cleanairfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/The-State-of-Global-Air-Quality-Funding-2021-report-compressed-2.pdf

102 https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific

103 https://cil.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/2013-Updated-APMS-1.pdf

104 https://www.eria.org/ERIA-DP-2015-82.pdf

105 https://www.greenpeace.org/southeastasia/press/3239/a-haze-free-asean-by-2020-are-we-there-yet/

106 https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Indonesia-sootfree-CBA-02182020.pdf

107 https://www.science.org/content/article/indonesias-fires-are-bad-new-measures-prevented-them-becoming-worse

108 https://www.climate-laws.org/geographies/indonesia/policies/presidential-regulation-5-2006-concerning-national-energy-policy

109 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

110 https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/air-pollution-choking-bangkok-solution-reach

111 https://cdn.sei.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/210212c-killeen-archer-air-quality-in-thailand-wp-2101e-final.pdf

112 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

113 https://www.mdpi.com/2032-6653/12/1/2/pdf

114 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

114 https://www.who.int/vietnam/news/detail/12-12-2019-who-commends-can-tho-s-commitment-to-tackle-air-pollution#:~:text=HANOI%2C%2012%20December%202019%20%E2%80%93%20The,to%20safe%20levels%20by%202030

116 https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/India%20BS%20VI%20Policy%20Update%20vF.pdf

117 https://www.pmuy.gov.in/about

118 https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-grap-delhi-ncrs-action-plan-as-air-pollution-increases-6719746/

119 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590162120300368

120 https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities/world-air-quality-report-2020-en.pdf

121 https://www.npr.org/2019/07/30/727688757/mongolias-capital-banned-coal-to-fix-its-pollution-problem-will-it-work

122 https://www.kasa.gov.my/roadmap/Roadmap_KASA_2020-2030-en.pdf

123 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/20247/SouthEastAsia_report.pdf?amp%3BisAllowed=&sequence=1

124 https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1159659

125 https://changing-transport.org/modernizing-public-transport-in-the-philippines/

126 https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2016/01/28/govt-supports-road-sharing/

127 https://rise.esmap.org/data/files/library/sri-lanka/Renewable%20Energy/RE%206.1%20Clean%20Air%202025%20Action%20plan.pdf

128 https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-10-300

129 http://plancomm.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/plancomm.portal.gov.bd/files/68e32f08_13b8_4192_ab9b_abd5a0a62a33/2021-02-03-17-04-ec95e78e452a813808a483b3b22e14a1.pdf

130 http://plancomm.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/plancomm.portal.gov.bd/files/68e32f08_13b8_4192_ab9b_abd5a0a62a33/2021-02-03-17-04-ec95e78e452a813808a483b3b22e14a1.pdf

131 http://english.cbcsd.org.cn/SDtrends/20130922/73436.shtml#:~:text=on%20September%2010th-,The%20Airborne%20Pollution%20Prevention%20and%20Control%20Action%20Plan%20(2013%2D17,at%20the%20Environmental%20Protection%20Ministry

132 http://english.cbcsd.org.cn/SDtrends/20130922/73436.shtml#:~:text=on%20September%2010th-,The%20Airborne%20Pollution%20Prevention%20and%20Control%20Action%20Plan%20

133 https://www.loc.gov/item/global-legal-monitor/2018-08-16/china-2020-air-pollution-action-plan-released/

133 https://energyandcleanair.org/china-14th-five-year-plan-carbon-neutrality/

135 http://english.www.gov.cn/news/topnews/202109/09/content_WS6139a111c6d0df57f98dfeec.html

136 https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/country-spotlight/china/

137 https://www.ijglobal.com/

138 https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2021-wall-street-banks-ranked-green-projects-fossil-fuels/#xj4y7vzkg

139 https://www.aiib.org/en/news-events/asian-infrastructure-finance/2020/_common/pdf/AIIB_AIF2020_16April2020.pdf

140 https://epic.uchicago.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ETS_INDIA_ResearchSummaryFinal-.pdf

141 https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/this-pilot-trading-scheme-in-surat-could-help-firms-reduce-air

142 https://epic.uchicago.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ETS_INDIA_ResearchSummaryFinal-.pdf

143 https://epic.uchicago.edu/news/worlds-first-emissions-trading-scheme-for-particulate-pollution-starts-in-surat/

144 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09644016.2017.1338213?journalCode=fenp20

145 https://smartcities.gov.in/climatesmart_cities

146 https://www.niua.org/csc/assets/pdf/key-documents/phase-2/CSCAF-2.0-Brochure_24042020.pdf

147 For the full list of UNGPs, see > https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

148 https://oxfordre.com/environmentalscience/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.001.0001/acrefore-9780199389414-e-718

149 https://www.thai-german-cooperation.info/en_US/vehicle-pollution-fund-in-the-philippines-tackling-the-final-steps-towards-utilisation/

150 Garton, Kelly, Thow, Anne Marie & Swinburn, Boyd. (2020). International Trade and Investment Agreements as Barriers to Food Environment Regulation for Public Health Nutrition: A Realist Review. Journal of Health Policy and Management.

151 For the full list of UNGPs, see > https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

152 https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/Considerations%20regarding%20vulnerable.pdf

153 https://www.sei.org/featured/5-ways-reducing-pollution-can-improve-equality-for-women/

154 https://medium.com/pakistan-air-quality-initiative/introducing-the-pakistan-air-quality-initiative-%D9%BE%D8%A7%DA%A9%DB%8C-d1f2f9ed7d11

155 Not exhaustive